Two-dimensional (2D) single layer of cells, cultured on flat plates are considered gold standard for cell assays. It does not simulate the natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment. Kishen lab developed and characterized a 3D tissue graft model to study the interaction between stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and macrophages (MQ) in controlled inflammation and healing. The 3D apical papilla organoid will find (a) potential application for studying SCAP-macrophage crosstalk in tissue regeneration and repair and (b) questions the validity of studies conducted using 2D single layer cell culture for biomaterial testing.
Reference: Li FC, Shahin-Shamsabadi A, Selvaganapathy PR, Kishen A. Engineering a Novel Stem Cells from Apical Papilla-Macrophages Organoid for Regenerative Endodontics. J Endod. 2022 Mar 1:S0099-2399(22)00153-4.